Protein crystals are a tricky matter to study. Sometimes you can get them easily, without any effort, but sometimes to obtain one, you need to work hard and even that doesn’t bring success for a long. Once you get the crystal, it opens the gate to a long process to determine the molecular structure. Crystals are often very delicate and can be easily destroyed by mechanical and chemical agents as well as temperature changes. In view of these obstacles, many applications in macromolecular crystallography would benefit from the availability of a macromolecular crystal system, which exhibits outstanding diffraction properties, which is mechanically stable and radiation-hardRead More →

Fuel Cell Fuel cell is an energy conversion device that converts the chemical energy stored in fuels (Hydrogen) and oxidants into electricity through electrochemical reaction. We work on specific type of fuel cell which is Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), which is consists of an anode and a cathode, and a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) in between. At the anode, hydrogen flows into the flow channel through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) to the catalyst layer (CL). In the anode CL, hydrogen splits into protons (hydrogen ions) and electron, these electron travels through an external circuit to the cathode, thus generate electricity. At theRead More →

Protein crystals are so sensitive, that diffraction experiment conducted in room temperature could easily damage them. Therefore, an important preparation step for diffraction experiment is cooling protein crystals to around 100K. Water is significant part of protein crystals (even to 80%) and it’s a really love-hate relationship. On the one hand, high solvent content provides native environment for protein. Nevertheless, at the same time, during the cooling, water can cause crystals cracking (due to ice formation) or difficulties during diffraction data collection (because of visible ice rings on diffraction pattern). To avoid that, prior to the cooling, the crystals have to be treated using so-called cryo-protectants.Read More →

Engineers and scientists all around the world are working together to increase efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) devices. Decreasing manufacturing cost of these devices, together with the cost of produced energy, are making more and more people eager to reduce their carbon footprint. Multiple exciton generating (MEG) solar cells, can produce more energy from single high energy photon by creating multiple electron-hole pairs, these PV’s are more efficient, and have less energy loses due to thermalisation. Unfortunately we still don’t have thorough understanding about MEG processes. MEG solar cell In this project I’ve extend the capabilities of MEG detection system, this was achieved by eliminating manyRead More →

One of the components in a particle accelerator is the photo-injector. In this, the electron beam is generated, accelerated and focused. To achieve the focusing process a solenoid composed of superconducting material connected to a power supply in a certain way is necessary. In the assembly of the photo-injector for the bERLinPro project occurred an error in the connection of the solenoid. Creating an unknown circuit inside of a close system, with high vacuum. This circuit does not allow a process of stabilization of the voltage in not less than 45 min, when desired is less than one minute. In this project is intended toRead More →